From Junket Studies
Guide For Writers
Internet Public Library (IPL)
11 RULES OF WRITING
11 Rules of Writing
1. To join two independent
clauses, use a comma followed by a conjunction, a semicolon alone, or a semicolon followed by a sentence modifier.
2. Use commas to
bracket nonrestrictive phrases, which are not essential to the sentence's meaning.
3. Do not use commas
to bracket phrases that are essential to a sentence's meaning.
4. When beginning
a sentence with an introductory phrase or an introductory (dependent) clause, include a comma.
5. To indicate possession,
end a singular noun with an apostrophe followed by an "s". Otherwise, the noun's form seems plural.
6. Use proper punctuation
to integrate a quotation into a sentence. If the introductory material is an independent clause, add the quotation after a
colon. If the introductory material ends in "thinks," "saying," or some other verb indicating expression, use a comma.
7. Make the subject
and verb agree with each other, not with a word that comes between them.
8. Be sure that
a pronoun, a participial phrase, or an appositive refers clearly to the proper subject.
9. Use parallel
construction to make a strong point and create a smooth flow.
10. Use the active
voice unless you specifically need to use the passive.
11. Omit unnecessary
Created by Junket Studies
The Phrase Finder
Some free English
grammar and punctuation help may be found at:
Trademarks & What
to Do With Them
According to the International Trademark Association
<http://www.inta.org/>, a "trademark is any word (Poison), name (Giorgio Armani), symbol (a logo), device (the Pillsbury
Doughboy), slogan (Got Milk?), package design (Coca-Cola bottle) or combination of these, i.e. a mark that identifies and
distinguishes a specific product from others in the market place, i.e. in trade. Even a sound (NBC chimes) or color combination
can be a trademark under some
circumstances. The term trademark is often used interchangeably to identify a trademark
or service mark. A service mark (Harrods) is similar to a trademark, but it is used in the sale or advertising of services
to identify and distinguish the services of one company from those of others. The owner of a trademark must make a considerable
effort to ensure proper use thus assuring continued protection.
In general writing, however, just capitalizing
such names is
considered correct. You do not need to include the symbols (r) or TM.
In formal writing and some
journalistic styles, a trademark is used as an adjective modifying a noun, never as a noun. Trademarks can be treated as modifiers
occasionally, as in: She bought a Minolta camera.
In journalistic or formal use you should not change the mark to the
plural form. Instead, make the descriptive noun plural. (Oreo cookies. Not Oreos; DC-10 airplanes, not DC-10s) However, in
fiction -- especially in dialogue -- you may. Your tattooed, tough-guy biker character would say, "Mount them Harleys and
ride!" not "Mount them Harley-Davidson motorcycles and ride!" (Harley is a trademark as well as Harley-Davidson.) Nor should
you make a trademark possessive, unless it is in fiction or acceptable style for a particular publication. (Back to the biker:
The Harley's chrome reflected the morning sun.)
If a trademark is in possessive form to begin with, leave it as such.
Our biker would drink Jack Daniel's rather than Jack Daniels. He wears Levi's or Levi's jeans, not Levi jeans.
do you know when it is a trademark or service mark? International Trademark Association catalogs thousands of registered trademarks
and service marks at http://www.inta.org/>. INTA also will provide information via email or by phone.
Here are a few words
that are still trademarks, although some mistakenly assume they are generic:
Here are some words
that once were trademarks, but are no longer: